Sabtu, 16 Mei 2009

Direct speech and Indirect speech

Direct speech : refers to reproducing another persons excact word. We use quotation marks (" ")

Example of Direct Speech :

1. Jani said, “I’m very busy .”

2. They said, “We have bought a picture.”

3. He said, “I am learning my lesson.”

4. Lisa says, “I got the first prize.”

5. You said, “I will come to help him.”

6. Oskar will say, “I will do my best.”

Indirect speech : refers to reproducing the idea of another persons
word.

There are 3 kinds of indirect speech :

1. Imperrative (command/request)

2. interrogative (question)

3. Declarative (statement)


Example :
1. Imperrative (command / request)
Direct : Mrs. Rika said to Dina, "Don't wory about it."
Indirect : Mrs. Rika told Dina not to wory about it.

2. Interrogative (question)
Direct : Risa asked to Nico, "Are you a journalist?"
Indirect : Risa asked if / whether He was journalist.

3. Declarative (statement)
Direct : Mr. Dion said, "I worked hard yesterday."
Indirect : Mr. Dion said that he worked hard the day before.

In comand sentences, direct speech can changed to indirect speech with change "Said" to be "Ordered", "Told", and "Forbade".

Example :
1. Direct : Hamid said, "Open the door!"
Indirect : Hamid ordered to open the door.

2. Direct : Hamid said, "Dul, come here!"
Indirect : Hamid told Dul to come there.

3. Direct : Hamid said to Andi, "Do not disturb me!"
Indirect : Hamid forbade Andi to disturb him.

Time change

Expressions of time if reported on a different day

This (evening)

That (evening)

Today

Yesterday

These (days)

Those (days)

Now

Then

(a week) ago

(a week) before

Last weekend

The weekend before last / the previous weekend

Here

There

Next (week)

The following (week)

Tomorrow

The next/following day

Tense change

Direct speech


Indirect speech

Present simple
She said, "It's cold."

Past simple
She said it was cold.

Present continuous
She said, "I'm teaching English online."

Past continuous
She said she was teaching English online.

Present perfect simple
She said, "I've been on the web since 1999."

Past perfect simple
She said she had been on the web since 1999.

Present perfect continuous
She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."

Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching English for seven years.

Past simple
She said, "I taught online yesterday."

Past perfect
She said she had taught online yesterday.

Past continuous
She said, "I was teaching earlier."

Past perfect continuous
She said she had been teaching earlier.

Past perfect
She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived."

Past perfect
She said the lesson had already started when he arrived.

Past perfect continuous
She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes."

Past perfect continuous
She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.

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