Jumat, 22 Mei 2009

Simple Past Tense

The formula of Simple Past Tense :

(+ ) S + Verb 2 + O.

( - ) S + did not + Verb 1 + O.

(? )Did + S + Verb 1 + O.

Simple past tense used to talk about an action that happened in the past.

Simple past tense also used to tell a story. The time signals that indicate such happening are yesterday, this morning, just now, a few minutes ago ,long time ago, and last.

Example :

  1. (+ ) Ichsan went to Singapore last year.

( - ) Ichsan did not go to Singapore last year.

(? ) Did Ichsan go to Singapore last year?

  1. (+ ) They came to my house the day before yesterday.

( - ) They did not come to my house the day before yesterday.

(? ) Did they come to my house the day before yesterday?

  1. (+ ) Salahudin bought a new car yesterday.

( - ) salahudin did not buy a new car yesterday.

(? ) Did Salahudin buy a new car yesterday?

  1. (+ ) You left me alone last week.

( - ) You did not leave me alone last week.

(? ) Did you leave me alone last week?

Note :

1. In positive sentences, all of the main verb in the verb II (past tense).

2. In negative sentences, all of the main verb in the verb I.

How to Gain Attention People Orally

Gaining attention is expression that used to get attention or response from somebody.

Kinds of expressing gaining attention :

· Attention please.

· May/can I have you attention please.

· Excuse me.

· Look here.

· Look at me, please.

· Listen to me, please.

· Waiter.

· I hope you can attention me.

· I’m sorry, but……….

· Silent, please.

· Be quite.

· Don’t be noisy!

Showing attention :

  • Look at you.
  • How beautiful!
  • That’s wonderful!
  • What’s the matter?
  • Is everything alright?
  • That’s terrific!
  • Oh really? Is it true.
  • Oh my God. What happens?

Expessing Sympathy

Expressing sympathy is used to expression sympathy felling or care to someone who has problem or accident.

Kinds of expressing sympathy :

Ø That’s awfull.

Ø That’s a shame. Poor you.

Ø That’s a pity. I express my deeps.

Ø That’s a terrible.

Ø That’s too bad.

Ø That’s dread full.

Ø What a shame.

Ø What a pity.

Ø How terrible!

Ø How dread full!

Ø I’m sorry to hear that.

Ø I’m sorry to know that.

Ø I’m sympathy with you.

Ø I’m so sad to hear that.

Ø I’m so sad to know that.

Ø I can sympathy.

Ø I know the felling.

Ø I know what you feel.

Ø Oh no………

Ø Oh dear………!

Accepting sympathy :

Ø Thank you.

Ø Thanks.

Ø Thank you very much.

Ø Thank you so much.

Expressing Happiness

Expressing happiness is used to expression happiness felling when we are successful to do something.

We can expressing happiness with :

  • Word.
  • Gesture.

Kind of expressing happiness :

v I like.

v I love.

v I’m satisfied with…………..

v I’m pleased with………….

v Congratulation.

v I’m very happy because………..

v Well down.

v That’s fantastic!

v That’s good!

v That’s great!

v That’s wonderful!

v That’s exciting.

v I’m so happy for you.

v I’m happy to hear that.

v I’m glad to know that.

v I’m so happy to know it.

v My happiness for you.

v I’m very happy for you.

v My deep impression for you both.

v You make me happy.

v How happy you must be!

v How happy you are!

Giving Instruction

Giving instruction is an expression for give or ask somebody to do something that we want.

Giving instruction same with imperative sentences.

Giving instruction are :

  1. Command.
    • Verb (+ O).

Example : Watch out, come here, etc.

· Please + V (+ O).

Example : Please clean your room.

· V (+ O) + Please.

Example : Wash this towel, please.

  1. Prohibition.

· Don’t + V (+ O).

Example : Don’t close it!

· Don’t + V (+ O) + Please.

Example : Don’t be noise, please.

· Would you mind not + V-ing (+ O).

Example : Would you mind not reading my diary.

Kinds of giving instruction :

· Verb 1.

Example :

§ Wash your hand.

§ Eat your meal.

§ Sit down.

· Be + adjective.

Example :

§ Be your self.

§ Be a good student.

§ Be strong.

§ Be happy.

· Don’t + V-infinitive.

Example :

§ Don’t armb!

§ Don’t eat!

§ Don’t approach!

§ Don’t disturb!

§ Don’t touch!

· No + V-ing.

Example :

§ No smooking!

§ No swimming!

§ No parking!

§ No fishing!

Procedure Text

Procedure text is a text that designed to describe how something is achieved through a sequence of actions or steps. It explains how people perform different process in a sequence of steps. This text uses the simple present tense, often imperative sentences. It also usually uses the temporal conjunctions, such as first, second, then, next, finally, etc.

The generic structure of procedure text :

§ Goal :

The final purpose of doing the instructions.

§ Materials :

Ingredients, utensils, equipment to do the instructions.

§ Steps :

A set of instruction to achieve the final purpose.

Language features :

§ Use imperative. Example : cut, don’t mix, etc.

§ Use action verb. Example : turn, put, mix, etc.

§ Use connectivitas. Example : first, then, finally, next, etc.

§ Use adverbial phrases. Example : for five minutes, 2 centimeters from the top, etc.

Example of procedure text :

Goal :

Marble game.

Materials :

  • One marble per shooter.
  • A hole in ground.
  • A line (distance) to start from.

Steps :

1. First you must dub (click marbles together).

2. Then check that the marbles are in good condition and are nearly worth the same value.

3. Next you must dig a hole in the ground and draw a line a fair distance away from the hole.

4. The first shooter carefully throws his or her marble towards the hole.

5. Then the second shooter tries to throw his or her marble closer to the hole than his or her opponent.

6. The shooter whose marble is closest to the hole tries to flick his or her marble into the hole. If successful, this player tries to flick his or her opponent’s marble into the hole. The shooter flicking the last marble into the hole wins and gets to keep both marbles.

Recount Text

Recount text is a kind of text to tells the reader a past event or experience in a chronological order. That’s why, it uses simple past tense.

Recount text usually focuses on a person’s past experience, so it usually uses the word “I or we”.

The generic structure of recount text :

Ø Orientation :

Tells the readers who was involved in the story, what happened, where the story took place, and when it happened.

Ø Events :

Tell the sequence of events.

Ø Re-orientation :

Summarises the event.

Example of recount text :

Barbecue in the park

Last Sunday, we went to the park. David’s family invited us to a barbecue party in the park. We lived nearby so we just walked there.

When we got the park, there were not many people yet. David’s family was already there. They arrived there early to get the best picnic spot with an electronic barbecue grill nearby. When I arrived, they were cleaning the barbecue. They made sure the barbecue was clean. When it was clean, they turned the barbecue on by pushing the button. The electric stove turned on and the metal plate became hot.

David’s mother put some cooking oil on the metal plate, and after that put some sausages, beef steaks and some onions on the barbecue. Meanwhile, David’s father was preparing the bread, butter, and the drinks.

While waiting for the meat to cook, David and I joined our friends playing football. When we got tired, we stopped and enjoyed the sausages, steaks, and some cold softdrinks.

The food was delicious. I think David’s mother is one of the best cooks in the world.

How to Invite People Orally

Invitation is expression that used to invite someone to come to an event.

Kind of invitation expression are :

  1. Extending invitation :
    • How would you like to………..?
    • Would you like to come to………….?
    • Do you want to………?
    • We would like to invite you to…………..
    • We would like you join us for……….
    • How about………….?
    • I want to join to…………….?
    • Do you mind to come to………..?
    • Please come to………….
    • I’ll be happy if you come to………
    • Shall we go to………
    • Let’s we go to…………

  1. Accepting invitation.
    • Thank you, I will come.
    • OK!
    • I’d love to……….
    • I’d like to………….
    • That sounds great.
    • That sounds good.
    • That would be terrific.
    • That would be fun
    • That would be wonderful
    • Thank you for inviting me.
    • Thank you for the invitation.
    • It’s very nice of you to invite me.
    • I’d be happy to……..
    • I’d be glad to………
    • I like that.
    • I’d be delighted to……..
    • We’d be very happy to come.
    • We’d be very glad to come.
    • We’d be pleased to come.
    • We’d be delighted to come.
    • Surely.
    • That’s nice.
    • Thanks for asking………
    • We’ll be looking forward to it.

  1. Rejecting invitation.

· No, thank you.

· I’d love to, but………….

· I can’t.

· I’d like to, but I want be able to………..

· I would like to go, but I can’t.

· I would love to, but………..

· It’s good, but………….

· Sorry, It’s good, but I can’t.

· Sorry, I can’t go with you.

Making Appointments

Appointment is a kind of expression which is used to conduct an appointment.

Kind of appointment expression are :

1. Making an appointment.

§ I’d like to make an appointment with……….

§ I want to make an appointment to see…………..

§ I’d like you to come and see me.

§ Can we meet at………..

§ Can I come and see you?

2. Accepting an appointment.

§ All right, see you there.

§ I’ll be there.

§ Be there on time.

§ OK, wait a minute.

§ Yes, I’ll come.

§ I’ll wait for you there.

§ No problem, I’m free on.

§ It’s a deal.

§ Surely.

3. Cancelling an appointment.

§ I’m sorry, I can’t.

§ I’m sorry, I’m very busy.

§ I’m terrible sorry, I have to put of my appointment.

§ I’m sorry, I can’t come to meet you, because I must to do something.

4. Changing an appointment.

§ What about…………….?

§ Is that OK if we meet at 10.00am tomorrow.

§ Do you have another time this afternoon?

§ Could we change the day (time) of the meeting?

§ Would you mind if we change the day (time) of the meeting?